CONDITIONS & DEFINITIONS
The cornea is the clear outer coating of the front of the eye. A corneal abrasion occurs when the outer layer of the cornea (epithelium) is torn away. This can occur by a variety of means such as a finger in the eye, a tree limb or applying makeup; it is one of the most common injuries to the eye.
The cornea has more nerve endings than virtually any other part of the body, because of these many nerve endings any damage to the cornea may be very painful. Abrasions are the most common and usually heal in a short time period, sometimes within hours, and in many cases over night while you sleep. However, while the abrasion is healing they can cause excessive tearing, redness, blurred vision and light sensitivity. If treatment is needed, it consists of a tight patch to keep the lids from moving and pain relievers as needed for comfort.
An antibiotic may be used following an abrasion because the open area of the epithelium invites infection. Small abrasions tend to heal quickly, however if one covers more than one-third of the cornea it may take an extra day or two for the epithelium to completely recover the front of the cornea.
Typically, an anesthetic is used in the eye doctor's office to ease the pain and to aid in the examination, unfortunately when the anesthetic wears off the pain typically returns. However, repeated use of an anesthetic can harm the eye and is therefore not used in the treatment of abrasions. Permanent loss of vision is very rare with superficial abrasions.
Do not rub the eyes during the healing phase following an abrasion. New cells can be easily rubbed off and require time to re-connect to the non-damaged layers of the cornea.
Occasionally, long after an abrasion has healed it recurs spontaneously, often upon awakening in the morning. This is called a recurrent erosion and represents an area of the epithelium that is not re-connected well to the deeper parts of the cornea.
The treatment is similar to that for the abrasion. Sometimes the surface of the cornea is treated with a special instrument in order to help form better connections between the corneal layers. Extended use of bedtime ointments or lubricants may also help in preventing recurrent erosions.